In June, the Scottish authorities revealed its first prospectus of the Making Nova Scotia collection of papers advancing the case for independence. Independence within the trendy world: richer, happier, extra sincere: why not Scotland? it set forth an formidable aspiration: Scotland had develop into a Nordic-type society.
Nonetheless, it has not been with out issues in defining what social democracy is, not realizing how these Scandinavian types of social democracy got here into being, and overlooking why these Scandinavian societies moved away from social democracy.
In Independence within the Trendy World, the Danish sociologist Gösta Esping-Andersen, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), classifies welfare states as liberal, conservative, and social democratic.
The doc defines the social democratic method as “common programs based mostly on equality of excessive requirements, not equality of minimal wants. The prices of caring for the younger, the sick, and the aged are socialized, resulting in excessive social prices, which in flip encourage full employment (i.e., the longevity of the mannequin relies on sustaining excessive employment charges to maintain excessive social spending)2.
The issue of definition begins with the usage of a textual content on welfare capitalism, which relies on a partial characterization of social democracy. Whereas beneficiant welfare states are necessary elements of social democracy, they’re removed from the one ones. Welfare measures deal solely with the outcomes of the capitalist market, looking for to enhance them. They don’t cope with altering the processes by which these outcomes are created within the first place.
It appears no coincidence that the SNP-dominated Scottish authorities selected to make use of this way more restricted definition of what counts as social democracy. If this weren’t the case, then one must marvel why it doesn’t plan to considerably improve public possession, particularly in strategic sectors similar to vitality and transport, and a collection of value and revenue controls, in addition to to ascertain most wages and the rights of staff and their unions have been significantly expanded.
The way in which out of squaring this circle is to view the SNP not as democratic however as social-liberal, with the primary objective being to make capitalism extra environment friendly in producing tax income to pay for the welfare state.
This brings us to the query of how social democratic societies have been created within the Scandinavian nations. This took place on account of main battle between rival social courses within the Thirties after the aftermath of the Wall Avenue crash of 1929 began the Nice Melancholy. Employee-led labor and their allies compelled capital into what was known as the “nice compromise” in Norway and Sweden, with related agreements made in Denmark and Finland.
These compromises characterize a extra even division of the spoils of capitalism, with the state as mediator. A centralized coordination of wage negotiations was established within the economic system, in addition to a nationwide tripartism wherein all three gamers participated. Social peace was achieved by compromise between the 2 nice courses of capitalist society, with the state taking part in the position of an sincere dealer.
Consequently, union density and collective bargaining protection have been practically full, and solidarity wage insurance policies have been adopted to cut back wage inequality. Non-public property and capitalism nonetheless existed, however they have been closely regulated and public property grew to become widespread.
The lesson right here for analyzing the imaginative and prescient of SNP independence is that we’ve got a case of evaluating apples and oranges by way of the dimensions and scope of what’s wanted to create such shifts in society. Satirically, it’s due to the retreat of social democracy within the Scandinavian nations that the SNP can now think about them as potential fashions.
Though Norway stays considerably totally different, as its huge oil funds supported many of the state property, nonetheless, all Scandinavian nations have deregulated their upbringing and society below the affect of neo-liberalism because the Nineteen Nineties. Because of this capital is now a lot much less regulated than at any time because the Nice Compromises took impact. Collective bargaining was decentralized, which weakened the ability of unions, and wage inequality widened once more. Social advantages have been lower. Consequently, revenue inequality has elevated. Privatization and commercialization of public companies additionally befell.
All which means that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are now not the social democratic Scandinavian nirvanas they as soon as have been. The power of capital’s counter-offensive compelled even these nations to regulate to the wave of neo-liberalism.
For a post-independent Scotland below a Scottish SNP authorities, we’ll see very restricted optimistic progressive change. This means that austerity measures geared toward stabilizing the forex and reassuring worldwide capital markets of the advantages of the Scottish economic system for funding and revenue didn’t wipe them out within the first place.
Professor Gregor Gall is an Affiliated Analysis Fellow on the College of Glasgow and editor of Nova Scotia: Constructing an Equitable, Simply and Sustainable Society (Pluto Press, 2022, £14.99).